Mangrove is a concept with multiple meaning; it refers to an individual of species of herbs, shrubs or trees belonging to Dycotyledonae or Monocotyledonae; it also refers to a type of forest or a group of vegetation species. Mangrove is a group of vegetation species, containing of various species belonging to different families, but they have similar morphological and physiological adaptation strategies to the intertidal environment and saline water. In Indonesia, there are 75 species of mangroves, from 41 Genus and 24 Families. A local name of Rhizophora (one of mangrove plant Genus) is “Bakau”, that often mistranslate the word of mangrove. Therefore, the meaning of MANGROVE is not equal with BAKAU.

Mangrove forests are coastal ecosystems, having close relationships with the coastal geomorphology where the forests grow. According to this characteristic, many authors have made classification and among of them, Thom (1982) classified mangrove forests into five types: 1) River dominated allochthonous; 2) Tide dominated allochthonous; 3) Wave dominated barrier lagoon (autochthonous); 4) Composite river and wave dominated; and 5) Drowned bedrock valley (Figure xx). We may find all these types of mangrove forests in Indonesia which account for around 3.3 million hectares and are distributed in the five big islands and 17000s small islands. Some mangrove forests are associated with seagrass meadows and coral reefs, to form a complex ecosystem in the coastal area. These type of mangrove forests are of interest to our institution. We have established xxx permanent stations to be monitored every two years

Generalisation of mangrove forest settings according to Thom (1982)